1 Mary Fischer, "A Case of Dominoes?" Los Angeles Magazine, September 25, 1989, pp. 128-129.  [Back]

2 The tunnel had originally been built for use at a sister school located elsewhere in Manhattan Beach. When that school closed for business reasons the "tunnels," as children referred to them, were transported to the newer school built in 1966.  [Back]

3 Ibid., p. 128.  [Back]

4 Virginia McMartin, "Virginia McMartin Preschool," unpublished autobiography, 1982 or early 1983; Huntington Beach News, August 14, 1987.  [Back]

5 Huntington Beach News, August 14, 1987.  [Back]

6 Fischer, op. cit., p. 130.  [Back]

7 Mary A. Fischer, op. cit., pp. 128-135, and Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Abuse of Innocence: The McMartin Preschool Trial, Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1993, p. 308. A University of California Los Angeles Medical Center report (August 17, 1983) on Judy Johnson's son reported "erythema and excoriation trauma" from "forced entry and/or rubbing." But Fischer reports that "Two doctors, one an intern, determined the boy's condition was 'consistent' with being sodomized. Later, the intern, Dr. Linda Golden, confided 'she didn't know anything about sexual abuse,' a former LAPD detective said." Another physician, according to Fischer, who concluded the boy had anal fissures incorrectly testified that the boy had been circumcised. Eberle and Eberle report that defense expert Dr. David M. Paul testified that, based on his study of the boy's medical examinations, he did not believe the boy's anus had a fissure. In either case, he added, the physical evidence was not diagnostic of sexual abuse. As the Queen's Corner for the City of London and a physician of forensic medicine, Dr. Paul's credentials were impeccable. He had examined more than 1500 children for signs of sexual abuse and had written and lectured extensively on the topic.  [Back]

8 Fischer, op. cit., p. 130.  [Back]

9 Easy Reader/Redondo Beach News, March 25, 1994.  [Back]

10 Fischer, op. cit., p. 131; Easy Reader/Redondo Beach News, March 25, 1994.  [Back]

11 Kee MacFarlane, "Curriculum Vitae," no date listed but contains references up to 1987; John Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1988, p. 136.  [Back]

12 Kee MacFarlane, op. cit.   [Back]

13 Easy Reader, March 25, 1994.  [Back]

14 Fischer, op. cit., p. 131.  [Back]

15 Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Abuse of Innocence, New York: Prometheus Books, 1995.  [Back]

16 Fischer, op. cit., p. 132.  [Back]

17 Easy Reader/Redondo Beach News, March 25, 1994.  [Back]

18 Paul and Shirley Eberle, op. cit. p. 169.  [Back]

19 Robert Shaw, "Where was Skepticism in Media's Coverage," Los Angeles Times, January 19, 1990.  [Back]

20 For the definitive and Pulitzer Prize winning account of the news media's coverage of McMartin, see Robert Shaw's series of articles beginning in the Los Angeles Times, January 19, 1990: For an early account of the hysteria that swept the nation, see another Pulitzer Prize winning series by Tom Charlier and Shirley Downing published in the Memphis Commercial Appeal, beginning January 17, 1988.  [Back]

21 For information about Philibosian's political exploitation of the McMartin case see: Easy Reader/Redondo Beach News, March 25, 1994; The Daily Breeze, March 29, 1994; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, May 19, 1984; Los Angeles Times, May 25, 1984; Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Politics of Child Abuse, Secaucus: Lyle Stuart, Inc., 1986, pp. 311-319.  [Back]

22 Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1984.  [Back]

23 Los Angeles Times, Feb. 3, 1984; Daily Breeze, Feb. 3, 1984.  [Back]

24 MacFarlane's efforts may have been made easier by her admitted romantic relationship with the reporter who broke the story (Los Angeles Times, January 19, 1990).  [Back]

25 The amount was suggested by an unnamed parent who had become involved in the McMartin case as part of a personal crusade (Beach Reporter, April 12, 1984).  [Back]

26 The estimate of 30 children interviewed is as of March 26 (Beach Reporter, April 12, 1984).  [Back]

27 Mary Emmons, an open letter from CII to citizens of the South Bay, Beach Reporter, June 14, 1984.  [Back]

28 Hearing before the House and Senate Children's Caucus of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary in conjunction with the Third National Conference on Sexual Victimization of Children, April 26, 1984.  [Back]

29 All IRS records cited in this report are on file with the Institute for Psychological Therapies.  [Back]

30 The salary of CII Executive Director Marry Emmons shot up from $85,000 in 1986 to $152,976 in 1991.  [Back]

31 Roland C. Summit, "The Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome," Child Abuse & Neglect, 7, 1983, pp. 177-193. "The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched myths and prejudice, providing credibility and advocacy for the child within the home, the courts, and throughout the treatment process."  [Back]

32 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, April 8, 1984.  [Back]

33 Summit has been the Head Physician for the Community Consultation Service at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Torrance, California since 1968, according to his curriculum vitae.  [Back]

34 Los Angeles Times, May 11, 1984.  [Back]

35 Beach Reporter, November 1, 1984; The Beach Reporter, June 24, 1984, reported that Summit had been awarded a $66,000 grant to set up a community "hotline/rumor control" center. The program was designed to allow callers to find out about (in the words of the writer): "answers to all kinds of questions: where do I go to get help . . . the neighbor kid did (or said) . . . I heard that the store around the corner . . . why aren't they in jail . . . how do I find out if my child is molested." The article states that, "Those involved are hoping it can reinforce the old hometown, neighborly feeling that makes Manhattan Beach special," but the approach seemed to echo the same mistake made before by the Manhattan Beach Police Department when it sent out the letter to 200 parents that resulted in rampant gossip and hysteria.  [Back]

36 Beach Reporter, April 19, 1984.  [Back]

37 Beach Reporter, May 25, 1984.  [Back]

38 Ray Buckey believed that the 18-month-long preliminary hearing and subsequent two-and-one-half-year-long trial helped provide a fair trial by allowing for a rational examination of the evidence while community hysteria, which Summit's actions seemed to encourage, died down (Interview with Ray Buckey, August 7, 1990).  [Back]

39 Daily Breeze, November 1, 1984.  [Back]

40 E. Gary Stickel, "Archaeological Investigations of the McMartin Preschool Site," Manhattan Beach, California, The McMartin Tunnel Project, 1993, p. 7; Los Angeles Times, March 17, 1985, p. 7.  [Back]

41 Los Angeles Times, Jan. 18, 1986.  [Back]

42 The former district attorney had asked for the indictments even though his staff had not yet reviewed the taped interview of the McMartin children. Interview with Abby and Myra McMann on Insight, KNBC, Los Angeles, May 21, 1995.  [Back]

43 Los Angeles Times, January 18, 1986.  [Back]

44 Los Angeles Times, October 20, 1990; Letter to John K. Van De Kamp, Esq., Attorney General, March 6, 1986. Fourteen of the attached signatures were of parents whose children talked about tunnels.  [Back]

45 Los Angeles Times, February 5, 1986.  [Back]

46 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, April 8, 1984.  [Back]

47 Ibid; In the New Yorker ("In the Mail," November 8, 1994) writer Lawrence Wright apologized to Summit for a previous column which accused him of claiming that denial is evidence of abuse. Lawrence pointed out that Summit "does not claim that denial is evidence of abuse," that he has campaigned against using CSAAS as part of a "Catch-22" logic for substantiating child sex abuse claims. He points out that in "Abuse of the Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome," Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1(4), 1992, pp. 153-163, Summit criticizes prosecutors and defense attorneys who abuse CSAAS in their own respective self-serving ways. In that article, Summit protests the use of CSAAS to "mean a diagnosis which an expert [court] witness contrives to prove an injury. Syndrome evidence has become a generic term for diagnostic medical or psychological testimony which must be closely scrutinized for scientific reliability, lest the intrinsic authority of the expert witness improperly prejudice a jury through contrived or eccentric opinion." But Summit's insightful caution expressed above contradicts his strong support of the methods used by MacFarlane — which assume a priori that abuse occurred — and his dogmatic belief in the uncorroborated claims that they produced. Summit's own words lead to the inescapable deduction that he does consider a child's denial to be diagnostic of sexual abuse. This interpretation is also supported by other public comments made by Summit. In 1989, for example, while addressing the Orange County Conference on Multiple Personality Disorder in Costa Mesa, California, Summit stated:

When somebody starts asking the question, the child typically will say nothing is happening. Remember that . . . The fact is, the kids will not only not tell us spontaneously, but they will refuse to talk about it if asked. And that is not only true of ritual abuse; that's so much true of the humiliating and fearful aspects of any kind of child sexual abuse . . . The window of disclosure in a child spills out a little bit at a time. And we in a position of somebody curious have to stay with the child and help pry that window up; and if we don't do that right . . . if we're skeptical, the window comes back down again.  [Back]

48 "From the Mouths of Children," Canadian Broadcasting System, January 5, 1993. The admission prompted the following response from Dr. Lee Coleman, the McMartin defense expert who had viewed the CII transcripts: "That is so unprofessional. The gross irresponsibility of these people who have the nerve to hold themselves out as child savers and the ones who care about the children. [They] are the ones who by their irresponsibility have invented a system which is hurting so many children."  [Back]

49 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, December 18, 1986; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, January 22, 1987; Orange County Register, January 6, 1987.  [Back]

50 Fischer, op. cit., p. 128.  [Back]

51 Fischer, op. cit., pp. 129-30, reports (based on police reports that she had seen at the time) that "Hoag visited Johnson's home three times in August to interview Billy. When she couldn't get him to talk, she concluded 'he didn't understand the concept of the word name.'(In fact, according to court records, Billy never spoke at all to Hoag.) Then, hoping to get the boy to identify Buckey visually, she showed him class photos that included Buckey, but the boy was unable to identify him." Eberle and Eberle write in The Politics of Child Abuse, Secaucus: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1986, pp. 22-23, that Hoag testified at the preliminary hearing that Billy gave her two names of suspects, one of which sounded like "Ray," but not necessarily Ray Buckey at the McMartin preschool. She was not sure that the child had understood the question.  [Back]

52 Fischer, op. cit., reports that Hoag had telephoned 12 other parents whose names Johnson gave her, but none of their children reported abuse or suspicious behavior. Hoag continued to search for evidence anyway, searching the Buckey's school and home property several times for incriminating evidence.  [Back]

53 "Chronology," compiled by researchers for the defense. During the subsequent trial, the prosecution made a major issue out of the fact that Ray Buckey, like many other typical beach area residents, frequently did not wear underwear.  [Back]

54 "Chronology," op. cit.   [Back]

55 Fischer, op. cit., p. 129,states that Johnson and her husband were divorced shortly before Johnson's nervous breakdown.  [Back]

56 Los Angeles Times, January 19, 1989.  [Back]

57 Easy Reader, January 25, 1990, p. 8. "Defendant Raymond Buckey, Juror Mark Basset."  [Back]

58 Los Angeles Times, "Ray Buckey to Be Retried on 13 Counts," Feb. 1, 1990; The jury voted 11-1 (one count); 10-2 (one count); 7-5 (one count); 8-4 (nine counts). A single count of conspiracy against Buckey and his mother was dismissed by Judge Pounders.  [Back]

59 "McMartin Voices," special section of the Easy Reader, January 25, 1990, p. 9.  [Back]

60 Easy Reader, January 25, 1990.  [Back]

61 Paul and Shirley Eberle, op. cit., p. 163.  [Back]

62 Peggy Buckey spent two years in jail before being released on $495,000 bail. Ray Buckey spent five years in jail and was released on $3 million bail.  [Back]

63 Los Angeles Times, "A Retrial by TV Talk Show," Jan. 31, 1990.  [Back]

64 Orange County Register, January 30, 1990.  [Back]

65 Orange County Register, Jan. 31, 1990; Los Angeles Times, Jan. 31, 1990.  [Back]

66 Press conference, May 7, 1990.  [Back]

67 Five former jurors appearing on a news interview show expressed doubt that a new trial would result in conviction. Los Angeles Daily News, "Ex-jurors attack Reiner for role in Buckey case," July 2, 1990; See also, Los Angeles Times, "Ray Buckey to Be Retried on 13 Counts," Feb. 1, 1990, for similar comments by jurors.  [Back]

68 The final vote was 8-4 in favor of guilt on one count; 11-1 in favor of acquittal on three counts; 8-4 in favor of acquittal on one count; 9-3 in favor of acquittal on one count; 7-5 in favor of acquittal on one count; and 6-6 in favor of acquittal on one count. Source: Los Angeles Times, July 28, 1990; Paul and Shirley Eberle, op. cit., p. 410.  [Back]

69 E. Gary Stickel, Archaeological Investigations of the McMartin Preschool Site, Manhattan Beach, California, Unpublished paper by The McMartin Tunnel Project, 1993.  [Back]

70 Stickel, op. cit., p. 15.  [Back]

71 Stickel, op. cit., pp. 15-16; Los Angeles Times, June 5, 1990: "McGauley, the parent who helped instigate the dig, has acknowledged a romantic relationship with Gunderson that predates the parents' project."  [Back]

72 Cited in the Easy Reader, May 31, 1990.  [Back]

73 Cited in the Easy Reader, May 31, 1990.  [Back]

74 Los Angeles Times, June 5, 1990.  [Back]

75 Ibid.   [Back]

76 The Tunnels Found At The McMartin Preschool: A Preliminary Report, Gary Stickel. No date listed. However, a hand written note indicates that the document was printed on July 14, 1990.  [Back]

77 Stickel, op. cit. Copies of the report are available through the Institute for Psychological Therapies.  [Back]

78 Roland C. Summit, "The Dark Tunnels of McMartin," The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), Spring, 1994, 397-416.  [Back]

79 Ibid., p. 398.  [Back]

80 Ibid, p. 412, no. 4.  [Back]

81 Ibid, p. 398.  [Back]

82 Ibid, p. 398.  [Back]

83 Ibid., pp. 411-412.  [Back]

84 Lecture before the Costa Mesa California chapter for the Study of Multiple Personality Disorder and Dissociation-2nd Annual Conference on Multiple Personality and Dissociation: Theoretical Perspectives and Treatment Strategies, April 7-10, 1989.  [Back]

85 Roland Summit, "Too Terrible To Hear: Barriers To Perception of Child Sexual Abuse." Adapted from a paper written in support of testimony before the U.S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, Miami, Florida, November 20, 1985.  [Back]

86 Remarks made at the 2nd Annual National Believe the Children conference, June 1994. Audio tape: "Ritual Abuse: Disclosures in the 80s, Backlash in the 90s."  [Back]

87 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, January 8, 1987.  [Back]

88 Summit, op. cit., pp. 399, 412.  [Back]

89 Fischer, op. cit., p. 128.  [Back]

90 Ann Wolbert Burgess, Psychiatric Nursing in the Hospital and the Community, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1981, p. 282.  [Back]

91 Summit, op. cit., p. 411.  [Back]

92 Roland C. Summit, "McMartin Children Vindicated." Lecture at Huntsville Alabama Child Abuse Conference, May, 1993.  [Back]

93 "What Have We Yet To Learn From McMartin?" Lecture by Roland C. Summit, at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, Calif., July 27, 1990; "McMartin Children Vindicated," Lecture by Roland C. Summit, Huntsville, Al., May, 1993; Roland C. Summit, "The Dark Tunnels of McMartin," The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), Spring, 1994, 397-416; Roland C. Summit, "Digging For The Truth: The McMartin Tunnel Project Versus Trenchant Disbelief," Treating Abuse Today, 4(4), 1994, 5-13.  [Back]

94 Stickel, op. cit., p. ii.  [Back]

95 Summit, op. cit., p. 404.  [Back]

96 Stickel, op. cit., p. ii.  [Back]

97 Personal conversation with author and McGauley, May, 1994. In a letter dated July 16, 1993 and subsequently distributed to hundreds of child care professionals at a January 1993, APSAC convention in San Diego, Summit writes that "the archaeological report cannot be released until the bills are paid. Even then, there will be no funds to publish the report or to distribute it." Until then, the official report would remain "only a tantalizing promise." In a conversation with Summit, in May, 1994, this writer, after being assured that all bills related to the project had finally been paid and that a "bribe" was not intended, was solicited for donations to help with publication costs. In "The Dark Tunnels of McMartin," (The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), Spring 1994, p. 416, n. 8), Summit states that ". . . there is no general access to this report, and no assurance of when or how it might become available. Inquiries may be directed to me, including any interest in assisting in publication." In the article's conclusion, Summit states, "Jackie McGauley has hard-won documentation of physical evidence to share. Who will buy it?" See also an adaptation of the article, "Digging For The Truth: The McMartin Tunnel Project Versus Trenchant Disbelief," Treating Abuse Today, 4(4), 1994, p. 7. A sidebar, written by editors, announces the goal of publishing 1,000 copies of Stickel's report for distribution to "researchers, journalists, policy-makers and other professionals and interested parties." Donations are asked for and readers are informed that they may obtain individual copies of the report for $19.00, with a 4 to 6 week delivery period required. An attempt by another journalist known to the author to obtain a copy of the report in this fashion failed. The check was returned with a letter explaining that the McMartin Tunnel Project has decided not to release the report after all, due to potential biased media criticism and because MTP seeks a more friendly, less skeptical environment for release of the report.  [Back]

98 Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, The Courage To Heal, (Third Edition) New York: Harper Perennial, 1994, pp. 520-521.  [Back]

99 Ibid, p. 520.  [Back]

100 Ibid, n. 128, p. 520.  [Back]

101 Random Lengths, December 6-12, 1990; For a review of the article see Pacific News & Review, February 15-March 1, 1991. Copies available upon request with SASE to Institute for Psychological Therapies[Back]

102 Heidi Vanderbilt, "Incest: A Chilling Report, Lears, February, 1992, pp. 49-77.  [Back]

103 Scott McLemee, "Spotlight on the Liberty Lobby," Covert Action, Fall, 1994, p. 30; Staff written article (based on transcript of radio program, "Radio Free America," broadcast April 15, 1992), "Experts Charge Evidence Suppressed in Child Molestation Case," Spotlight, (300 Independence Ave., SE. Washington, D.C. 20003) June 1, 1992, pp. 14-17.  [Back]

104 The program ran on April 15, 1992.  [Back]

105 McLemee, op. cit., pp. 23-32.  [Back]

106 "Agreement Of Confidentiality," California Archaeological Inventory, Archaeological Information Center, UCLA Institute of Archaeology.  [Back]

107 Interview with the author, 6-15-94.  [Back]

108 E. Gary Stickel and Jackie McGauley, "Results of Archaeological Investigations at the McMartin Preschool." Lecture given at San Diego Conference On Child Maltreatment, in Cooperation with The American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children and the California State Department of Social Services, January 28, 1994.  [Back]

109 Stickel interview with the present author, June 14, 1994.  [Back]

110 The lecture is available on video, "Research Presentation," E. Gary Stickel, Jackie McGauley, 1994 Responding To Child Maltreatment Conference, Convention Recorders.  [Back]

111 Personal conversation with Bob Beers, the geophysicist who conducted the sensing survey, 1991; E. Gary Stickel, "Archaeological Investigations of the McMartin Preschool Site, Manhattan Beach, California," Copyright 1993 by the McMartin Tunnel Project, pp. 11, 94-95; Stickel also notes (p. 14) that SRS archaeologists suggested using Ground Penetrating Radar but were turned down by the DA's office.  [Back]

112 Stickel, op. cit., p. 8.  [Back]

113 During my interview with Bob Beers, February 3, 1994.  [Back]

114 Based on a records check conducted by the Archaeological Information Center, UCLA Institute of Archaeology, 310-825-1980.  [Back]

115 Bass and Davis, op. cit., p. 520.  [Back]

116 Al Hiddel, "Satanic child abuse coverup!" Paranoia, 2(2), 1994, pp. 32-34.  [Back]

117 Heidi Vanderbilt, op. cit.   [Back]

118 The interview with Beat Arnold was conducted by the present writer by phone in June, 1994.  [Back]

119 E. G. Stickel, "New Applications of remote sensing: Geophysical prospection for underwater archaeological sites in Switzerland," in Barbara Purdy, Ed. Wetsite Archaeology, Telford Press, 1988, p. 87.  [Back]

120 Stickel and Garrison, op. cit., p. 88.  [Back]

121 "What Have We Yet To Learn From McMartin?" Lecture by Roland Summit, at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, July 27, 1990.  [Back]

122 Hale interview with author, June 1994.  [Back]

123 Los Angeles Times, February 13, 1990.  [Back]

124 Charles Hillinger, "Archaeological Dig-Just Rocks or Ancient Tools?" Los Angeles Times, Feb. 13, 1990.  [Back]

125 William R. Hildebrandt, "Final Report: Archaeological Research of the Southern Santa Clara Valley Project: Based on a data recovery program from Sites CA-SC1-54, CA-SC1-163, CA-SC1-178, CA-SC1-237 and CA-SC1-241 located in the Route 101 Corridor, Santa Clara County, California, July, 1983."  [Back]

126 Hildebrandt, op., cit., pp. 6-1: "With respect to charcoal, this substance is extremely resistant to decay and can remain preserved for long periods of time. Occasionally, natural redeposition processes, pluvial or landslides, result in confusing field relationships. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully analyze the sedimentary fine structure. If very large trees are present, such as the naturally occurring oaks of the San Francisco Bay region, intrusive roots may give rise to charcoal-like deposits which age-wise do not match the stratum in question. Usually such conditions can only be recognized by abnormal dates for a given excavation; p. 7-23: "The 38,050 B.C. date is thought to have been the result of redeposited old charcoal or contamination through contract with pitch or asphalt . . . As a result, it will no longer be considered."  [Back]

127 Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Abuse of Innocence, Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1993, p. 169.  [Back]

128 Testimony by George Villegas, June 21, 1990. In 1982 Villegas conducted a traffic survey for the City of Manhattan Beach.  [Back]

129 Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Politics of Child Abuse, Secaucus: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1986, p. 51.  [Back]

130 According to the Easy Reader, March 25, 1994, Heger medically examined over 100 former McMartin students, concluding that 70% were sexually abused. Her interpretation of medical evidence was that lack of medical evidence is evidence of abuse. In Sexual Abuse of Young Children, (as cited by the Easy Reader) Heger wrote: "Any conclusion should validate the child's history [as compiled from parents and their children] and state clearly that the presence or absence of physical findings is consistent with the history of sexual abuse."  [Back]

131 Stickel, op. cit., p. 7; Los Angeles Herald Examiner, March 17, 1985;  [Back]

132 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, March 17, 1985.  [Back]

133 Los Angeles Herald Examiner, March 17, 1985.  [Back]

134 On the "Larry King Live Show," June 4, 1990, the Salas family appeared to talk about the tunnels. Mr. Salas stated: "My son started talking about the underground tunnels way early in 1984." The District Attorney's report indicates otherwise.  [Back]

135 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., "Report On A Forensic Archaeological Investigation Conducted At The Goldstein Property, Manhattan Beach, California," for L.A. County District Attorney's Office, June 14, 1985, Introduction.  [Back]

136 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., pp. 7-9.  [Back]

137 Los Angeles Times, June 5, 1990.  [Back]

138 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 13.  [Back]

139 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 12.  [Back]

140 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 21.  [Back]

141 Eight of the 11 children were not included among the patients of Martha Cockriel listed above.  [Back]

142 Summit, op. cit., p. 414. Summit states: "In fact, they [SRS] merely peeled back some of the asphalt tiles looking for potential interruptions in the concrete slab floor and relied on an inappropriate instrument to disclaim the possibility of disturbances under the concrete. According to Dr. Stickel, who later excavated the tunnels, the terrain conductivity meter used by the first archaeological team was powerless to penetrate concrete." In fact, investigators checked every location that 11 on site children identified as a trap door opening that would lead to a secret room. This included looking at walls and pulling back tiles. Also, the results of the terrain conductivity meter readings on the concrete floors were not used in the final evaluations. The archaeologists were well aware of the limitations of its use due to the steel reinforcement in the concrete floors. (Personal conversation with SRS consultant Bob Beers, the geophysicist in charge of the conductivity survey.)  [Back]

143 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op, cit., pp. 21-22.  [Back]

144 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., pp. 23-24.  [Back]

145 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 31.  [Back]

146 Stickel, op. cit., p. 3.  [Back]

147 See "The Beginning," in this article, for an account of Summit's involvement in the McMartin case.  [Back]

148 Los Angeles Times, (Shaw)  [Back]

149 Stickel, op. cit., p. 2.  [Back]

150 Stickel, op. cit., p. 3.  [Back]

151 Stickel, op. cit., p. 115.  [Back]

152 Danny Davis (attorney for Ray Buckey) Offer of Proof Re: Dr. H. J. Holshuh, Superior Court Of The State Of California, July 13, 1989: 1) "He is our court-appointed animal expert. (Name of McMartin child) testified that he observed Ray pry, using a knife, the back part of a shell of tortoise. He stated he pried the top back of the shell away from the remaining part of a tortoise. Dr. Hulshuh can testify that that is an impossible task and he can testify to the only likely way one could separate the top shell from the bottom shell of a tortoise, which is inconsistent with (name)'s testimony. 2) Dr. Holshuh can testify to his examination of testimony as it related to the slaying of horses, i.e., with a swooping blow with a baseball bat or club, and that in his opinion it is highly improbable that a horse could be slain by a single blow to the head by a baseball bat or club. . . 3) Dr. Holshuh can testify to the unlikelihood of slaying rabbits as described in testimony. As an example, since the ears of a rabbit carry extremely large and profuse quantities of blood, if they were cut off, there would be blood everywhere. 4) Dr. Holshuh can testify to his initial examination, in response to Paul Bynum's request, of the two tortoises dug up by Paul Bynum, and his failure to find any evidence of pre-death trauma. . . ."  [Back]

153 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 9.  [Back]

154 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 6.  [Back]

155 Scientific Resource Surveys, Inc., op. cit., p. 13.  [Back]

156 Only 3 of the 11 children were from the first group of 10 children who told their therapist about secret rooms.  [Back]

157 This writer's interview with Hobbs, September, 1994. Hobbs maintains that parents were not allowed to help in any manner with the excavation. This is a questionable assertion. See the acknowledgments to Stickel, op. cit., p. 104: Stickel thanks his volunteer crew ". . . and numerous parents of children who had attended the preschool. They shoveled dirt, provided lunch, hot tea on cold nights, lent us equipment, latrines, donated services and funding." Is the above a matter of poor syntax or fact?  [Back]

158 Telephone interview with author, September, 1994. Michael, who had no personal investment or relationship to the case, also maintained that he never saw the parents doing any excavation work.  [Back]

159 This conclusion is drawn from the actual photographs themselves, presented in slide format by Stickel at the 1994 Responding To Child Maltreatment Conference, not on the expectedly low quality Xerox reproductions printed in the report.  [Back]

160 Stickel, op. cit., pp. 62, 92.  [Back]

161 (Video) E. Gary Stickel and Jackie McGauley, "Responding to Child Maltreatment Conference: Research Presentation." 1994; Bass and Davis, op. cit., p. 520.  [Back]

162 Stickel and McGauley, op. cit.   [Back]

163 Stickel and Garrison, op. cit.   [Back]

164 Stickel, op. cit., p. 93: "It was not resolved whether or not a buried room was encountered by our excavations;" p. 96: ". . . the project located a possible tunnel under the front of the preschool . . ." and "There is no other scenario that fits all of the above facts except that the feature (under the north (E/W) axis of school building) was indeed a tunnel."  [Back]

165 Stickel, op. cit., p. 112.  [Back]

166 Stickel, op. cit., p. 88.  [Back]

167 Stickel, op. cit., pp. 161-166.  [Back]

168 This writer's interview with Hobbs, September, 1994; Roland Summit, op. cit., p. 405.  [Back]

169 Roland Summit, "McMartin Children Vindicated." Lecture at Huntsville Alabama Child Abuse Conference, May, 1993.  [Back]

170 Roland Summit, "The Dark Tunnels of McMartin," The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4), Spring, 1994, p. 407.  [Back]

171 Stickel and McGauley, op. cit.   [Back]

172 For the reference to beams: Stickel and McGauley, op. cit., Stickel, op. cit., p. 54.  [Back]

173 Stickel and McGauley, op. cit.   [Back]

174 Stickel, op. cit., p. 62.  [Back]

175 Interview, September, 1994.  [Back]

176 Stickel, op. cit., p. 116.  [Back]

177 See Summit, op. cit., p. 407; Summit writes: "Under the classroom to the west the tunnel proceeded into a wide, room-like potential space of contrasting earth fill bearing remnants of timber, plywood and tar paper which appeared to have shored up the ceiling of a 'secret' room." Summit states, erroneously, according to the accounts of Dr. Michael and Jerry Hobbs (who actually excavated the area, not Stickel as Summit implies) that the room was 6'8" high. According to Summit, "Joanie," a 12-year-old McMartin veteran had "anticipated on the spot," and numerous other McMartin children had implied for years, the secret room under Ray's classroom and other excavational findings in the supposed tunnel running across his room into the adjacent, northeastern classroom, including the following: 1) tree roots that brushed across the faces of children as they passed through the tunnel; 2) a waste pipe that children could swing on; 3) a cement overhang that children had to duck to avoid hitting their heads 4) concrete that had been "arched upward and worn smooth," supposedly to accommodate the tunnel shape, made in the concrete foundation holding up the wall between the two rooms; 5) the plywood and tar paper roofing. In another account (After McMartin Who Walks Point? Lecture at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, Calif., July 27, 1990) Summit says that the arch had been "chipped clean" and that it was incongruous with the rest of the concrete footing. He also states, "And it's worth saying as a piece of data, that children described that it did get big there (in the 9' area of the alleged secret room)." Neither the District Attorney's reports of children's accounts of underground tunnels/rooms nor Stickel's survey of therapists whose patients allegedly disclosed tunnel abuse, has a single account that matches any of the above factors. Summit makes no offer of documentation to back his assertion. Also, the photographic evidence of the supposed arch does not reveal a true arch. It does, in fact, appear chipped but by natural weathering or molding, not by human sculpting; it is very much typical of the weathered foundation bottoms of other areas of the school, as shown very clearly in photos of the SRS dig.  [Back]

178 Interview with author, August 6, 1990; also personal observation based on television news reports and in person, or in situ sightings. Given her height, size, and obvious lack of mobility it is inconceivable that Peggy Buckey could have crawled through tunnels that, even by Stickel's estimation, were never more than 3'8" tall.  [Back]

179 Based on personal interview and conversations, August 1990.  [Back]

180 Stickel, op. cit., p. 111.  [Back]

181 E. Gary Stickel, Jackie McGauley, op. cit. In comments made by McGauley at 1994 Responding To Child Maltreatment Conference.  [Back]

182 17,000 cars a day passed by the school on Manhattan Beach Blvd., according to a city sponsored survey in 1982. The survey was conducted by George Villegas. He testified in court on June 21, 1990.  [Back]

183 E. Gary Stickel, Jackie McGauley, op. cit. In fact, the neighbors are thanked in the report for their help with the 1990 project. See acknowledgements in Stickel's tunnel report.  [Back]

184 Ibid.   [Back]

185 Interview with the author, Jan. 2, 1994.  [Back]

186 Stickel, op. cit., pp. 142-43.  [Back]

187 Interview with author, Sept. 1994.  [Back]

188 Interview with the author, Sept. 1994.  [Back]

189 Roland C. Summit, op. cit. p. 409, finds more to be suspicious about concerning the concrete foundation between the two rooms: "I have always wondered since that day (when he viewed the "tunnel," the same day the building was demolished) why such a flimsy structure needed a 29-inch-deep foundation to support a non-weight-bearing partition between two classrooms. The four inch slab itself would have been code-sufficient. Could it have been designed as a strong-back-girder over future sub-slab excavations?" Is there another possible, more likely solution? Summit need not wonder any longer. The plausible reason for the fortified foundation, according to building experts, is to provide support for a potential second story addition to the structure.  [Back]

190 Conversation with Charles Buckey. Buckey, who designed the preschool, was never interviewed by Stickel.  [Back]

191 Stickel, op. cit., Introduction by Roland C. Summit, p. ii.  [Back]

192 Court testimony, "Roe vs. Jane Doe," April, 1991.  [Back]

193 Roland Summit, "Hidden Victims, Hidden Pain: Societal Avoidance of Child Sexual Abuse," in Lasting Effects Of Child Sexual Abuse, Gail Elizabeth Wyatt and Gloria Johnson Powell, Eds., Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1988, p. 40.  [Back]

194 Ibid, p. 56.  [Back]

195 Roland Summit, "Ritual Abuse: Disclosures in the 80s, Backlash in the 90s," Lecture at the 2nd Annual National Conference of Believe the Children, June, 1994; Personal conversation with author, May, 1994; Roland Summit, "The Dark Tunnels of McMartin," The Journal of Psychohistory, 21(4). Spring, 1994, pp. 397-398; In a Canadian Broadcasting System interview, during the program Fifth Estate, "From the Mouths of Children," January 5, 1993, Summit states, "I have no hesitation to describe in some detail the efforts of people to turn this around back to disbelieving children or especially to use the issue of ritual abuse as the fatal flaw to illustrate that anyone who would believe in ritual abuse must be unbelievable and fanatical."  [Back]

196 Roland Summit, "McMartin Children Vindicated." Lecture at Huntsville Alabama Child Abuse Conference, May, 1993.  [Back]

197 Roland Summit, "Too Terrible to Hear: Barriers to Perception of Child Sexual Abuse," Adapted from a paper written in support of testimony before U.S. Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, Miami, FL November 20, 1985, p. 1.  [Back]

198 "From the Mouths of Children," Canadian Broadcasting System, Januaray 5, 1993; The Jordan multi-victim/multi-perpetrator case began shortly after McMartin and ended long before it — with only one conviction. The State Attorney General harshly criticized the investigative techniques used to draw out allegations of sexual abuse (which turned into allegations of ritual murder) from child witnesses.  [Back]

199 The report of the Attorney General of Minnesota stated, cited in Paul and Shirley Eberle, The Politics of Child Abuse, Secaucus: Lyle Stuart Inc., pp. 182-83, "The credibility problems result from repeated questioning, a lack of reports, and cross germination of allegations. A therapist's report notes that one child had been interviewed by nine individuals about the alleged abuse. The mother of another child indicated that her daughter had been interviewed as many as fifty times by law enforcement or Scott County authorities."  [Back]

200 "From the Mouths of Children," Canadian Broadcasting System, January 5, 1993.  [Back]

201 A partial copy of the speech was shown during the Canadian Broadcasting System documentary.  [Back]

202 "From the Mouths of Children," Canadian Broadcasting System, January 5, 1993.  [Back]

203 Roland Summit, remarks at the Second Annual National Conference of Believe the Children, "Ritual Abuse: An Historical Overview" (audio tape) by Michael Newton. Repeat Performance (219-485-1234) June, 1994.  [Back]

204 This writer's interview with Hobbs. In fact, the children did not tell law enforcement investigators that there was a secret room underneath Ray Buckey's room. One child testified at the preliminary hearing that a trap door on the floor of Ray's classroom opened to a room inhabited by roaring lions but no precise location was given.  [Back]

205 Ibid.   [Back]

206 Al Hidell, "Satanic child abuse coverup!" Paranoia, 2(2), Summer, 1994.  [Back]

207 Cited by John W. Decamp, in The Franklin Cover-up: Child Abuse, Satanism, And Murder in Nebraska, Lincoln: AWT, Inc., p. xx; Gunderson also claimed, falsely, that "In the McMartin case, for example, before any criminal charges were filed against anyone, 460 complaints were filed with the Manhattan Beach Police." In fact, except for charges made, and quickly dropped, involving one 2 12-year-old boy, no other complaints were made about the McMartin preschool until after an inflammatory letter was sent out by the police to over 200 parents. In May, 1991 Gunderson was asked by LaRouche's U.S. Labor Party, which has close ties to the anti-Semitic Liberty Lobby, to investigate ritual abuse. In the forward to The Mystery of the Carefully Crafted Hoax, published by the Nebraska Leadership Conference, a Labor Party front, Gunderson wrote: "I can state without hesitation that there is indeed a national cult network, including satanic, witchcraft, and pedophilic groups, which is operating at full throttle in our society. The activities of these groups (it is in reality one group which operates on many levels) include the kidnapping and molestation of children, as well as the torture and murder of human beings. Their favorite victims are children and newborn babies— the younger the better. . . . My investigation has revealed that the satanic cult network has set up preschools across the country which they use as the source of kiddie pornography and child prostitution. They have successfully penetrated the public school system as well." Gunderson has never substantiated his numerous claims of satanic abuse. On Geraldo's 1988 show on satanic cults, an all time ratings spectacular, Gunderson stunned law enforcement officials in Mason County, Washington with the prediction that massive satanic killing fields would be unearthed in the area within a month. Satanic panic quickly resulted, but bodies were never found. On other occasions, Gunderson has claimed to be the object of satanic murder contracts but has not produced convincing evidence. According to the New York Times, May 19, 1995, Gunderson recently told a gathering of members of a militia that "unnamed demonic sources within the government blew up the Federal building in Oklahoma City." Perhaps more disturbing than Gunderson's grandiose claims of satanic conspiracy is the fact that in 1979, at the end of his 27 year career, he was considered one of the FBI's top agents.  [Back]

208 "From the Mouths of Children," Canadian Broadcasting System, January 5, 1993.  [Back]

209 Current Affair, exact date unknown.  [Back]

210 Daniel Goldman, "Proof Lacking for Ritual Abuse by Satanists," New York Times, October 31, 1994; Other studies, by the British government and law enforcement officials in Michigan, Virginia, and Utah reached similar conclusions, according to the article.  [Back]

The Dark Truth About the "Dark Tunnels of McMartin"

bulletThe Beginning
bulletThe Accusation
bulletThe Letter
bulletChildren's Institute International
bulletHysteria Spreads
bulletNews Media Coverage and National Hysteria
bulletFollowing the Money
bulletDr. Roland C. Summit
bulletSatanic Trappings and the Search for The Secret Rooms and Tunnels
bulletIncredibly Weak Evidence
bulletSummit Defends MacFarlane's Interviews of the McMartin Children, Without Reviewing the Interviews
bulletJudy Johnson's Increasingly Bizarre Behavior
bulletThe Trial Verdicts
bulletParents Begin Search For Tunnels
bulletRevisionist History: Judy Johnson and The Dark Tunnels of McMartin
bulletThe Third McMartin Trial
bulletEthics, Professors, Indiana Jones, Switzerland, and Early (Very Early) Man
bulletTunnel Precursors
bulletBob Currie
bulletOrigin of a Secret Room
bulletFrom Santa Claus To Lions
bulletMultiple Molestations: Devils, a Dead Baby, and a Ghost
bulletTunnel Therapy
bulletThe District Attorney's Excavation
bulletAnalysis of the Report on the 186 (minus one page) Manhattan Tunnel Project (MTP) by E. Gary Stickel
bulletMTP Archeological Methodology Employed by E. Gary Stickel
bulletSite Contamination By Manhattan Tunnel Project
bulletPhotographic Documentation of the MTP Archeological Procedures
bulletStickel's Conclusions About the Evidence He Claims to Have Obtained from the Archeological MTP Project
bulletThe Missing Tunnel
bulletEstimating Dates of "Tunnel" Artifacts

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