The Tide Has Turned for The Falsely Accused of Sexual Abuse: A Christian Perspective
Robert G. Huebner*
Psychology Editors' Note: From the beginning, we have intended for
the journal to be multidisciplinary and to present different
perspectives from many scholarly disciplines. Theology is a
scholarly discipline that has relevance to many people.
Theologians can address any other discipline from within the framework
of theology and assess its meaning from the theological viewpoint.
This article and the next one express a
theological approach to the issues generated by claims of recovered
memories of childhood abuse.
False accusations are a sad part of human history. False
accusations have destroyed the lives and reputations of millions.
Recall the Inquisition in Spain and in the Americas. Remember the
New England witchhunts with their divided villages and split
families. Recall more recently when parents tried to get back
their children from communes that they were lured into through
A new plague has emerged among the white, middle class in the
developed world, which affects numerous families. Distraught
parents are now desperately trying to recover their daughters, who
falsely accused them of sexual abuse. More investigators are
relating this new phenomenon to the aggressive feminist movement, which
insists that there are many more sexually abused children than is
One hundred and thirty families in Colorado's front range, stretching
from Port Collins to Pueblo, meet occasionally to encourage each other
as they suffer a common plight of having been abandoned by their
daughters who falsely accused one or both parents of sexual abuse.
A growing number of families have also been accused of practicing, even
leading, satanic rites, including communal meals of sacrificed babies,
which supposedly were procreated during the alleged sexual abuses.
These families have allowed me, a retired Missouri Synod Lutheran
foreign missionary, to accompany them in some meetings. There I
learned most of what I am sharing here.
In every case the accusers refuse to meet the accused after the
accusation, thereby blocking any attempt for clarification and
reconciliation. Since incest is a criminal offense, to be accused
of incest without recourse and to be forced to defend oneself in church
or state is a very serious matter. Each of the 130 families were
crushed and utterly ashamed when accused. They thought they were
the only ones so horribly accused, the only ones bearing such a
disgrace. The media has been slow in picking up on this
phenomenon; many of these families had not read or heard, either on TV
or in the papers, of anything similar happening to others.
Since 1992 the False Memory Syndrome Foundation1
in Philadelphia has been contacted by over 18,000 families who are in a
similar plight of being accused without the recourse of dialogue with
the accuser. These families have thanked the Foundation for its
help offered through a hot line and a monthly newsletter.
Although 18,000 families may sound like a small number, the
accusation rips apart three generations of relatives, therefore,
affecting between 60 to 100 family members. Furthermore,
considering the initial reaction of one feeling to be the only one so
accused, one can reasonably suspect that there are many more desperate
families in our churches, in our country and world. The main
reason for this article is to reach out in love toward those families
who feel they are alone in their disgrace. It is for those who
have remained in the closet either for not knowing where to find help,
or for fear it could mean job loss after losing their good name and the
former happy family relationships.
With several court decisions after years of disappointment, rays of
hope have increased for all families falsely accused of sexual
abuse. In its December newsletter, the False Memory Syndrome
Foundation (FMSF Newsletter, 1997) reported on its survey of 105
malpractice suits filed by former patients against their therapists
which claimed that the use of suggestive recovered memory techniques led
to the development of false memories. Of these cases, 42 were
settled out of court, 53 are still pending, 1 was dropped, and 9 went to
trial. Of those that went to trial, all have resulted in a verdict
in favor of the former patient (plaintiff) against the defendant
The largest settlement, $10.6 million, was reached the first week of
November, 1997, the day the trial was to begin, by Patricia Burgus of
Lombard, IL, with Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center in
Chicago, where Dr. Bennett Braun practiced experimental psychotherapy on
Burgus. According to the lawsuit, she was brainwashed into
believing she was a satanic high priestess who engaged in cannibalism,
ritual murders and abuse of her own children (Belleck, 1997; FMSF
This year, Bennett Braun, along with 17 other individual and
corporate health care providers, will face a malpractice suit by Mary
Shanley. Shanley was diagnosed with MPD (multiple personality
disorder) and persuaded that she, along with her husband and son, had
been in a dangerous satanic cult. She was isolated from the
outside world because the therapists believed she and her family were in
immediate danger from the cult, because she had divulged cult secrets
during therapy. Her son was also hospitalized and diagnosed with
MPD (FMSF Newsletter, 1998).
Nadean Cool, a nurse's aide from Appleton, Wisconsin, settled her
suit with her psychiatrist, Dr. Carlson, for $2.4 million after 15 days
of courtroom testimony. Her suit alleged that Dr. Carlson
misdiagnosed her with Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and, through
hypnosis, age regression, exorcism, and drugs, induced false memories of
sexual and ritual abuse (FMSF Newsletter, 1997). On November 30,
1997, CBS 60 Minutes carried a story where Cool said she supposedly had
126 personalities, one as satan's wife. Four other women treated
by Dr. Carlson were on the program who claimed to have gone through the
same ordeal at great expense.
Two juries returned verdicts two years ago against Minnesota
psychiatrist Diane Humenansky who was accused of planting false memories
of sexual and ritual abuse in her former patients Vynnette Hamanne and
Elizabeth Carlson. The juries awarded Hamanne $2.67 million and
Carlson $2.5 million for their ordeals (FMSF Newsletter, 1997).
There are apt to be many such women, if only they could be reached
and informed. Truly there are many more. Beth Rutherford
claimed that her clergyman father, Tom, had raped her from age 7 to 14,
with her mother at times holding her down. Under her therapist's
guidance, Rutherford had memories of her father twice impregnating her
and forcing her to abort the fetus with a coat hanger. After
recanting, a medical examination confirmed that Beth was still a virgin
at age 22, and never had been pregnant. Beth sued the therapist
and won a one million dollar out-of-court settlement in 1996 (Davis,
1996; FMSF Newsletter, 1997). Obviously, a medical exam could have
checked out those claims much earlier, avoiding the family ordeal.
However, one soon learns that in this lucrative business, the therapist
does not question recovered memories, neither does he/she attempt to
verify any of the memories, but rather makes efforts to preserve the
memory to enhance, to heighten and increase the memory.
Another encouragement is the action of The British Royal College of
Psychiatrists, which recently issued recommendations on "Reported
Recovered Memories of Child Sexual Abuse." A key paragraph:
Psychiatrists are advised to avoid engaging in any "memory
recovery techniques" which are based upon the expectation of past
sexual abuse of which the patient has no memory. Such
"memory recovery techniques" may include drug-medicated
interviews, hypnosis, regression therapies, guided imagery, "body
memories," literal dream interpretation and journaling.
There is no evidence that the use of consciousness-altering
techniques, such as drug-medicated interviews of hypnosis, can reveal
or accurately elaborate factual information about any past experiences
including childhood sexual abuse. Techniques of regression
therapy including "age repression" and hypnotic regression
are of unproven effectiveness (Working Group on Reported Recovered
Memories of Child Sexual Abuse, 1997, p. 663).
Another indication the situation is changing is illustrated by the
experiences of a psychologist, Paul Simpson (1997), who formerly
practiced regression therapy, but who now admits having mislead
clients. He writes in the preface of his book, Second Thoughts:
"Within these pages is my own story of deception, deliverance and
redemption. But more importantly this book reflects the quiet
horror of thousands who have been swept into one of the greatest
hysterias of this century, a magnitude not seen since the last cycles of
the great Witch Hunts." Since 1993, through Project Middle
Ground, Simpson has been offering opportunities for guided dialogue
between clients who have developed memories through recovered memory
techniques and their estranged families.
Despite these encouraging developments, there is much left to be
done. In a recent article, Elizabeth Loftus (1998) notes:
There are elderly parents who have one wish left in life
simply to be reunited with their children. There are talented
mental health professionals who have found their profession tarred by
the controversy. And there are the genuinely abused patients who
have felt their experiences trivialized by the recent sea of
unsubstantiated, unrealistic, and bizarre accusations (p. 24).
Although the tide has turned, the most ardent opponents are those
who claim to be protectors and helpers of the sexually abused.
They fear that if they acknowledge there are significant numbers of
false accusations, the public will stop believing in sexual
abuse. How absurd. Both are very real those who are
falsely accused of abusing and those who are abused. Each case
must stand on its own feet. Each must be treated by society as a
separate problem to be accepted and dealt with as each case warrants.
The Nature of the Problem
There is a common scenario in families falsely accused of sexual
abuse in our group:
A daughter phones home and says, "While in therapy, I suddenly
remembered that, when I was a child, I was sexually abused."
The shocked mother asks, "Darling, by whom?"
The daughter's replies, "You know, Mother both you and
Father often sexually abused me!"
The mother questions, tries to reason, but the daughter retorts,
"See Mother, just like the therapist told me, you are in
denial. I will not see you unless you and Father confess that
you sexually abused me."
While remaining in an expensive program with therapists who
reinforce her recovered memories, the daughter denies her parents any
contact with herself and their grandchildren.
John F. Kihlstrom, professor of psychology at Yale University, has
suggested the following definition of False Memory Syndrome:
A condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal
relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience
which is objectively false but in which the person strongly
believes. Note that the syndrome is not characterized by false
memories as such. We all have memories that are
inaccurate. Rather, the syndrome may be diagnosed when the
memory is so deeply ingrained that it orients the individual's entire personality
and lifestyle, in turn disrupting all sorts of other adaptive
behaviors. The analogy to personality disorder is
intentional. False Memory Syndrome is especially destructive
because the person assiduously avoids confrontation with any evidence
that might challenge the memory. Thus it takes on a life of its
own, encapsulated, and resistant to correction. The person may
become so focused on the memory that he or she may be effectively
distracted from coping with the real problems in his or her life
(FMSF, 1997, p.1).
Aside from the similarity of accusations, there are other common
threads that bind these families. Many are retired or close to
retirement. They are from all walks of life, although they tend to
be white, educated, and middle class. Many have strong religious
ties, regularly attend worship services, and are active in their
congregations. They often report enjoying happy family ties until
the day the accusations destroyed, literally smashed, previously
harmonious relationships (Freyd, Roth, Wakefield, & Underwager,
I asked Pamela Freyd, the Executive Director of the False Memory
Syndrome Foundation, "How many Afro-Americans, Hispanics, Asians,
and Native Americans are among the accused parents?" Dr.
Freyd replied, "The number of accused parents among those groups is
extremely small. The accusers and the accused seem to belong to
the insured and economically protected groups in society."
The description of the accuser is common (Freyd, Roth, Wakefield,
& Underwager, 1993; FMSF, 1997). She (92% of the accusers in
the FMSF family surveys are women) may seek therapy for a variety of
problems, such as an eating disorder, depression, difficulties at work,
or family strife with husband and/or children. While in therapy
she ends up "discovering" problems in her past she had never
heard of, or knew of, or experienced before. As a result of
therapy, patients claim to have been sexually abused, to have multiple
personalities, or to have practiced satanic rites where they
participated in communal meals of sacrificed children born from sexual
abuse. Some have even come to believe they were abducted by space
aliens or abused in past lives.
The Role of the Christian Churches
Another common denominator I have observed is that most of the
families find their pastors know little about this relatively new
malady. Therefore, pastors and fellow church members are incapable
of bringing together the accused with the accuser for
reconciliation. When both the accused and the accuser are members
of the same congregation, pastors are in a quandary as to whom to
believe. But for the falsely accused, it is shattering when a
church that claims to care appears not to care.
The problem involves not only two people, the accuser and the
accused, but the larger family, which could mean 60 to 100 members of
the same church. Is it truly caring for the church member's
welfare to allow an openly accused offender of incest to remain active
in a congregation without dealing with him, and/or to harbor a member
who has falsely accused another member of sexual abuse and remain active
without church discipline? Our God in Ezekiel 18:30-32 says:
Therefore, O house of Israel, I will judge you, each one according
to his ways, declares the Sovereign Lord. Repent! Turn
away from all your offenses; then sin will not be your downfall.
Rid yourselves of all offenses you have committed, and get a new heart
and a new spirit. Why will you die, O house of Israel? For
I take no pleasure in the death of anyone, declares the Sovereign
Lord. Repent and live!
A church that cares seeks and deals with sinners in its midst, so
that he or she will not perish eternally.
When one asked the families, "what helped awaken these recovered
memories?," the accused often mention a book, The Courage to Heal:
A Guide for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse, written in 1988 by
Ellen Bass and Laura Davis. For many Christian therapists and
patients, this book is the "bible" of recovered memory.
Bass and Davis are survivors of abusive relationships. However,
both admit being unaccredited counselors.
How many Christian therapists have denounced this book for promoting
anti-biblical concepts and practices? The authors say that anger
is the backbone of healing, insist that to be restored to health the
"abused" person needs to spew out everything at the
"abuser, claim that a person is not more moral or courageous by
forgiving, and believe that suing the accused is strength. They
maintain that demands for proof are unreasonable since the accuser is
not responsible for proving abuse, and that if you feel the abuse
happened, then it happened.
What do the Holy Scriptures say about anger?
In your anger do not sin: Do not let the sun go down while you are
still angry, and do not give the devil a foothold. (Eph 4:26)
But now you must rid yourselves of all such things as these: anger,
rage, malice, slander ... (Col 3:8)
Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there
remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift
there in front of the altar, first go and be reconciled to your
brother; then come and offer your gift. (Mt 5:23, 24)
If your brother sins against you, go and show him his fault, just
between the two of you. If he listens to you, you have won over
your brother ... (Mt 18:15-17.)
Every passage above shows that reconciliation, a united life with
Christ and with the neighbor, is God's objective. God is against
strife and irreconcilable condemnation which provokes more division,
wrath and anger.
Listen to Jesus's words in Matthew 12: 34-37:
You brood of vipers, how can you who are evil say anything
good? For out of the overflow of the heart the mouth
speaks. The good man brings good things out of the good stored
up in him, and the evil man brings evil things out of the evil stored
up in him. But I tell you that men will have to give an account
on the day of judgment for every careless word they have spoken.
For by your words you will be acquitted, and by your words you will be
Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations
Many accusers have described satanic sacrifices of babies and
multi-generational communal meals under satan's influence. The
last two families that joined our group were so ashamed and shocked by
these accusations that they had avoided persons for fear of being
A leader of our group had the following experience. A local
church threatened to excommunicate a member if the daughter's accusation
of her practicing satanic rituals and communal sacrificial meals proved
to be true. Her church bought the empty property which the
accusing daughter claimed was the site of satanic rites. The
church then asked civil authorities to check rooms for blood stains
where the accuser claimed sacrifices had taken place. They dug up
the back yard for the remains of sacrificed children, where the daughter
claimed they had been buried. No blood or traces of remains were
found. In fact, it must be understood that when government
officials have investigated such claims, no evidence of
multigenerational cult ritual sacrifices or cannibalism has been
verified (Bottoms, Shaver, & Goodman, 1996; La Fontaine, 1994;
Despite this, not only do many Christian counselors but some church
authorities appear to believe in the reality of such unverified satanic
cult activity. This is not limited to fundamentalist, new age, or
fringe groups. For example, the United Methodist Church has a task
force on ritual abuse that sponsored a retreat for clergy on how to
respond to ritual abuse when encountered in their churches (Task Force
on Ritual Abuse, 1997). Continuing education credits were given to
the clergy for their participation in this event. A complaint to
church authorities about this was responded to with the claim that the
1996 General Conference of the United Methodist Church had issued a
mandate to the church to "develop training opportunities and other
educational resources" on ritual abuse (Wakefield, 1997).
What Does Christian Theology Say?
Our experience suggests that most Christian therapists and
psychologists lack a clear understanding of God's Law. The Law
expresses God's requirements and demands of every person. God says
in Holy Scriptures: "You shall not bear false witness against your
Luther explains in his Large Catechism: "Besides our own body,
our wife or husband, and our temporal property, we have one more
treasure which is indispensable to us, namely, our honor and good name,
for it is intolerable to live among men in public disgrace and
contempt. Therefore, God will not have our neighbor deprived of
his reputation, honor, and character any more than his money and
To falsely accuse a parent of sexual abuse is to rob father or mother
of their reputation, honor, and character their most valuable
But, there is another commandment: "Honor your father and your
mother, as the Lord your God has commanded you, so that you may live
long and that it may go well with you." Luther writes in the
Large Catechism: "To fatherhood and motherhood God has given the
special distinction, above all estates that are beneath it, that he
commands us not simply to love our parents but to honor
them." Thus he distinguishes father and mother above all
other persons on earth, and places them next to himself. For it is
much greater to honor than to love. When someone falsely accuses a
parent of sexual abuse, one is really accusing God, for a parent is
declared by God to be His representative here on earth.
This commandment is the only one with a promise to those who honor
father and mother. The promise is a long life and well
being. The commandment does not say what the punishment will be if
one dishonors father and mother. But any reasoning person who
thinks that it matters little if one despises father and mother, does
not know our loving yet righteous God.
All of these couples I have dealt with recognize they were not
perfect, holy, without sin in their childhood, youth and
adulthood. However, they did their best as humans to live
according to God's will, and they raised their children in the knowledge
of God and His gracious ways. To be repaid by daughters and sons
with a despicable accusation of sexual abuse is destroying well-meaning,
hard-working people, who in their golden years instead of rest and
service in church and community are tormented day and night by
accusations of horrible things they did not do.
The pain does not diminish with the passage of time. Those who
accuse, backed by their therapists, claim they need space, time to
heal. But the length of healing time seems to have no limit
5 years, 10, 15 maybe forever. Meanwhile the accused, in
their anguish, grow older, suffer deteriorating health, experience
depression, and eventually die of broken hearts. Parents agonize
over thoughts of disowning their daughters or writing them out of their
will. They daily relive the accusations, hoping the daughter will
return, wondering in their grief what they did wrong how could
such a thing have happened in their family?
It is even sadder when reputed Christian therapists appear not to
understand or to share the Good News of Jesus Christ. Christ
Jesus, true God from all eternity, became our brother, born of the
Virgin Mary. He lived a perfect life, He fulfilled in our stead
God's commandments, all of which we cannot keep. He died on the
cross as the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world, He rose on
the third day victor over sin, the fear of death, and the power of the
old evil foe.
Yes, "the old evil foe" exists and works. After his
defeat by Christ's resurrection he works even harder. He prowls
around to see whom he can devour. But the devil does not rule the
world. He can affect believers in Christ, but only when a believer
opens a door to him. As Luther wrote, we cannot keep the birds
from flying over our heads or keep the devil from tempting us, but we
can keep a bird from building a nest in our hair and the devil from
building a room in our heart. Lying and slandering continue to be
the devil's most dangerous work. It is he who moves the accusers
to slander and falsely accuse innocent parents of sexual abuse. It
was the devil that tempted our Lord when the Holy Spirit led him out in
the wilderness. One fine Baptist preacher, however, said many
years ago: The Lord took the devil very seriously. He knew he was
cunning and powerful. But he entered the ring and in three rounds
knocked him out.
It was the devil who filled people's hearts with hatred when he
preached to the world regarding sin, repentance, and forgiveness through
the love of God in Christ Jesus. It was lies and false accusations
that led to Jesus's arrest. More false accusations during his
trial led to his execution. Thus, Our Lord knows what it means to
be falsely accused. He can understand the pain that anyone bears
who has been falsely accused. But more important is to remember
that Christ's suffering as the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of
the world means that he now reaches out to both to the accuser
and the falsely accused offering help and salvation to
In Christ's trial, the High Priest said it was better for one man to
suffer than the whole people. So it is today. There is a
basic argument that children do not lie, must be believed as all
accusations are true. If an adult feels there was childhood abuse
and recovers memories, it is true and must not be challenged. If
you make a few mistakes and condemn innocent people, that is the price
that must be paid to protect the children. The flaw in this
reasoning is that children are not protected by having a society with an
unjust and oppressive justice system. Children are not protected
by having a society where the family as an institution is under attack
and can be destroyed by error and falsehood. Children are best
protected by having a society where families are strong and cohesive and
where all persons are treated with fairness and justice. It is the
truth that sets us free, not error.
The devil knows he is defeated, but he still manages to promote
today's greatest lie that he is the ruler of the world. The
increased abandonment of Christian doctrine and values and acceptance of
secularism and humanism leaves an open field for the devil to continue
his lies. However, if anyone accepts that the devil has
uncontested power in the world and worships him that is the great
denial of the One True God, the Father-Creator, the Son-Redeemer and the
Holy Spirit-Sanctifier and Comforter. "Do not be deceived:
God cannot be mocked." (Galatians 6:7).
What Christian Churches Can Do
When a society gets on a wrong track and begins to accept error and
produce unjust policies and practices, the only institution that has the
charge from God, therefore, the authority to resist, challenge the
state, call for change and a return to justice, is the church.
This requires courage and conviction by leaders and members of the
church as the church history of the last 80 years demonstrates. It
is easy for the church to follow a long and play the role of supporter
of injustice and preservation of the status quo. In the issues
raised by the recovered memory phenomenon, the church must acquire the
courage to go against the politically correct dogmas and the
pseudoscience that may bolster them. The church must stand for
truth and accuracy in science as well as in faith and values.
If the church does this, it is then able to speak with firmness and
boldness to individuals who are caught up in the errors. The
ministry of the church can then confront the mistakes, the false
witness, the masking of rage and anger as therapy, the divisiveness of
vengeance, and the ripping apart of families. The final step in
the church's ministry is to bring about healing, reconciliation, and a
restoration of family unity.
The FMS Foundation July/August Newsletter offers 58 titles of books
on the subject. All have been published since 1992. These
books offer descriptions of research studies that can help anyone
understand the nature of memory and how it functions, the process of
recovered memory therapy, the scientific status of concepts such as
multiple personality disorder, repression, and traumatic amnesia, and
how false memories develop. Ones that I have read and found helpful
Loftus, E. & Ketcham, K. (1994). The Myth of Repressed Memory:
False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse
New York: St. Martin's Press.
Ofshe, R., & Watters, E. (1994). Making Monsters: False
Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria ().
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Pendergrast, M. (1995). Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and
Shattered Lives ().
Hinesburg, VT: Upper
Schacter, D. L. (1996). Searching for Memory: Brain, Mind, and the
New York: Basic Books:
Simpson, P. (1997). Second Thoughts: Understanding the False
Memory Crisis and How It Could Affect You ().
Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1994). Return of the Furies: An Investigation
Into Recovered Memory Therapy (). Chicago: Open Court.
Van Til, R. (1997). Lost Daughters: Recovered Memory Therapy and the
People It Hurts (). Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans Publishing.
The recent changes in the problems our society faces with recovered
memory allegations along with the stimulation to read more books,
including the Good Book, provide a positive way to help both persons who
have been falsely accused and those who accuse them. Both are
going through pain, loneliness, abandonment by family, friends, and the
church. Become a facilitator of reconciliation for the accused and
the accuser through the power of the Holy Spirit in our Lord Jesus
Bass, E., & Davis, L. (1988). The Courage to Heal ()(). New York:
Belleck, P. (1997, November 6). Memory therapy leads to a lawsuit and
big settlement. New York Times, pp.
A1, A1 0.
Bottoms, B. L., Shaver, P. R., & Goodman, G. S. (1996). An
analysis of ritualistic and religion-related child abuse allegations. Law
and Human Behavior, 20(1), 1-34.
Davis, R. (1996, June 23). When memories lie. Springfield News-Leader
(Missouri), p. 6A, 7A.
FMSF Newsletter (1997, December). False Memory Syndrome Newsletter,
FMSF Newsletter (1998, March). False Memory Syndrome Newsletter,
FMSF (1997). Frequently Asked Questions. Brochure published by the
False Memory Syndrome Foundation, 3401 Market Street, Suite 130,
Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315.
Freyd, P., Roth, Z., Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1993, April
16-18). Results of the FMSF Family Survey. Paper presented at the
conference on "Memory and reality," False Memory Syndrome Foundation, Valley Forge, PA.
La Fontaine, J. S. (1994).
The extent and nature of organised and
ritual abuse: Research findings. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Lanning, K. V. (1992). Investigator's guide to allegations of
"Ritual" child abuse. National Center for the Analysis of
Violent Crime: Quantico, VA.
Loftus, E. (1998, March/April). The price of bad memories. Skeptical Inquirer, pp. 23-24.
Simpson, P. (1997). Second Thoughts: Understanding the False
Memory Crisis and How It Could Affect You ().
Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Task Force on Ritual Abuse (1997). Brochure on A Christian Response
to Ritual Abuse: A Journey of Hope and Healing. Sponsored by the United
Methodist Task Force on Ritual Abuse, United
Methodist Church, P.O. Box
2091, New York, NY 21025.
Wakefield, H. (1997). Correspondence between Hollida Wakefield and
members of the General Board of Global Ministries of the United
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1994). Return of the Furies: An Investigation
Into Recovered Memory Therapy (). Chicago: Open Court.
Working Group on Reported Recovered Memories of Child Sexual Abuse
(1997). Reported recovered memories of child sexual abuse. Psychiatric
Bulletin, 21, 663-665.
|1 The False Memory Syndrome Foundation
is a tax-exempt educational
organization located at 3401 Market Street, Suite 130,
Philadelphia, PA 19104-3315. [Back]
Robert G. Huebner LLD, is a retired foreign missionary of the
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. He can be reached at 3725
Deep Haven Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80920-4510. E-Mail: RHueb11226@aol.com.