Transcultural Development Sexology: Genital Greeting Versus Child Molestation
John Money, K. Swayam Prakasam, and Venkat N. Joshi*
ABSTRACT: Child rearing practices in the the
Telugu-speaking people of India include behaviors of touching and kissing the
penis. The meaning of these customs is not erotic or sexual, but if
engaged in in America would most likely be misconstrued and the parents
suspected of child sexual abuse. This example illustrates the importance
of transcultural issues in assessing the meaning of genital gestures and
In America today, when an older male establishes manual
contact with the genitopelvic region of an infant or child for purposes other
than hygienic care, that behavior is likely to be classified as child
molestation or sexual child abuse. Legally it is criminal and is subject
to severe penalty. By contrast, among the Telugu-speaking people of
central southern India, similar behavior toward boys may be customarily
prescribed. The traditions of the Telugu-speaking people are of ancient
origin. Telugu kingdoms in central southern India are known to have
existed as far back as the 2nd century B.C. During the reign of Raja Raja
Narendra in the 9th century A.D. the poet, Nannaya, wrote the first grammar of
the Telugu language. He also translated the great Indian epic, Maha
Bharata, from Sanskrit into Telugu and thus laid the foundation stone of
Telugu vernacular literature.
Telugu-speaking people today constitute the ethnic majority
of the state of Andhra Pradesh, but they are not confined exclusively to this
state. The capital city of Andhra Pradesh is Hyderabad. The total
population of the state is 75 million or more. The majority of the
population is Hindu in religious affiliation, a minority Moslem, and lesser
minority Christian. One of the holiest temples and centers of Hindu
scholarship in all of India is situated in the Telugu region. It is the
Balaji Temple of Lord Vishnu on the sacred hills of Tirumala, above the town of
Two of the present authors have participated in Telugu Hindu
customs from birth to fatherhood. The purpose of this paper is to present
and discuss data drawn from their first-hand knowledge and experience.
Clothing and Nudity
In early infancy, babies become accustomed to being nude as
they lie on a piece of cloth, covered by a second piece. The cloth on
which they lie accompanies them if they are picked up to be nursed or held, as
it serves as a substitute for a diaper. Adults expect that their own
clothing will become wet if the baby urinates while being held. It is
considered auspicious to be wetted for the first time by a new baby.
After the first six months, a parent may squat the baby over
his or her own bare feet and, making a shishing sound, condition the baby to
eliminate in that position. After the age of autonomous locomotion, it is
expected that, wearing no pants, the child will eliminate on the stone floor of
the house, or wherever it may be outdoors, and that an adult will clean the
child and dispose of the mess. Around the age of 18 months, the child is
expected to go outside to eliminate, where pigs and dogs dispose of the waste.
Before the age of two, boys and girls run around naked most
of the time, indoors and out. Their clothing, dresses for girls, and
shirts and pants for boys, is worn only on special occasions. After age
two, girls seldom are seen naked, awake or asleep. Boys, by contrast,
continue to wear no clothes most of the time in and around the home and
neighborhood, but they dress to go to school which begins at age five. Six
is the age of changeover from being naked to being clothed at all times, day and
night, including wearing a loincloth while washing. Among the classes of
poverty, the time of changeover may be extended to age eight.
Homage to the Penis
The parents and their close kin rock, hug, fondle, cuddle,
and kiss a baby, boy or girl, unstintingly. Lip-press kisses are bestowed
all over the baby's body, except for the orifices of the mouth and anogenital
region. In boys, the penis is excluded only until the baby is a year
old. Thereafter, his father, as well as other adult male kin, but not his
mother or female kin, will bounce a kiss of approval off his penis by first
lifting him up to mouth level.
From infancy until age six, children of both sexes continue
to be affectionately held, rubbed, smoothed, and patted by parents and
kinsfolk. Inclusion of the genitals continues to be the prerogative of
boys and their male relatives. The gesture changes, however, from direct
lip-penis contact, to a two-stage gesture. First the man flicks or pulls
the foreskin of the boy's uncircumcised penis with his thumb and the first three
fingers of his right hand. Then he lifts his bunched finger tips to his
lips, makes a kissing sound, and throws the kiss back to the penis. This
gesture may be repeated two or three times. If the man is a visitor, say
an uncle, it serves as an act of greeting. The visitor approaches the boy,
puts his left hand around the boy's right upper arm and with his own right hand
carries out the penis gesture. Such a greeting is an act of homage that
honors the superiority of the son over the daughter. As a male in a line
of patrilineal descent, a son is destined to ensure his father's spiritual
welfare after death.
At a corresponding age, a girl's genitals receive no
corresponding act of homage from her female kinsfolk. It will come, if at
all, only from a woman of a lower social rank. As a visitor, such a woman
may touch the young girl's pudenda with bunched fingers, raise them to her own
lips, and throw back a kiss of homage not to the girl's femininity, but to her
superior social status.
These genital customs tangentially overlap with eating
customs. The fingers are bunched in the same way as they are for kneading
cooked rice with condiments and eating it without utensils as finger food.
Only the right hand is used for eating, as it is also for genital homage.
The left hand is reserved for washing the anus after defecation.
Contemporary American overreaction to child sexual abuse and
molestation has become a contagious frenzy, virtually a monomania. Having
spread through the law, government, religion, education, medicine and the media,
it has itself become an epidemic threat to public sexological health (Money,
1988; 1991; in press), creating barriers to healthy sexological communication
and development in childhood. False accusations of molestation terrorize
parents, teachers, and others into suppressing affectionate body contact despite
its function as a precursor of healthy sexological maturity. Telugu
child-rearing practice demonstrates what ethologists have long known from animal
studies (Waal, 1989; 1990; Taub, 1990), namely, that genital gestures and
practices are not exclusively sexual and erotic communications. Telugu
parents in their own land know that the significance of genital contact in
child-rearing practices will not be misconstrued. Those same parents, if
they migrated to America and carried those same practices with them, would today
be likely suspects for arrest, conviction and imprisonment.
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|* John Money is a
psychologist and K. Swayam Prakasam and Venkat N. Joshi are
physicians at the Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, Maryland 21205. Preparation of this paper was
supported by USPHS
Grant HD-00325-33 and a grant from the
Laurance S. Rockefeller Fund. [Back]